日常保健:喝什么水易惹尿路结石

发布日期:2014-09-10 文章来源:头条号 微微健康网
尿结石影响人体健康,有人认为跟喝的水有关。喝什么水易惹尿路结石呢? 在医学界里,对于水中矿物质含量与尿路结石形成的关系还存在较大争论,目前还没有循证医学证据表明尿路结石跟水质有关。而可以确定的是,多喝水可以预防结石及辅助结石的排出。“实际上结石成因复杂,是多因素综合作用的结果,预防也应该从多方面综合预防,大家别过分强调水、食物对结石的影响”。

嘉园,健康
喝水防结石 尿量决定饮水量

“我院一年有超1000例因结石而需手术的患者,可见这是个高发疾病。”刘久敏介绍说,目前发现,结石跟人种、遗传、性别、体质,跟干燥、湿热、缺水的气候条件有关。有个调查可以说明此问题,当年美国出兵科威特沙漠地带,随军医务人员发现,夏天在当地生活10天后,士兵小便中钙的排出量就比在本土时明显增高,另一个研究发现这些士兵产生症状性尿路结石的平均时间是90多天。这是因为,炎热气候下,身体大量出汗使排尿量减少,会诱发结石。所以,大家在任何情况下都别忘多喝水,特别在出汗较多时。 一天八杯水、一天六杯水……关于一天饮水量达到多少的说法很多。刘久敏表示,饮水量多少很难说具体标准,关键要看本人尿量,饮水量要跟尿量达到平衡。一般认为每天饮水量最好2000至3000毫升以上,保证每天的尿量能够达到2000毫升以上。做运动出汗多,饮水量要相应增加;坐办公室的人出汗少,水量可以相应减少。 “对已有尿路结石的人,更要保证饮水量,应比平常人喝的量更多。若结石在0.6厘米以下,多喝水加吃排石药,结石有可能自行排出体外。”刘久敏表示。 钙多钙少都不好 饮食均衡最重要 饮食结构也是结石的重要诱因,高钙饮食摄取过多,动物内脏摄取过多、草酸类食物(如豆类、菠菜等)摄取过多也是导致结石诱发的因素。刘久敏表示,食物应该到达一个均衡的状态,摄取食物的种类要丰富、量要适量,别一次性大量进食某一种食物。“但也别矫枉过正,摄取过量的钙确实为结石诱因,但研究发现,适当的钙反而有利于预防结石”。 “无意义结石”可暂不治 按“石头”所在位置的不同,尿路结石包括肾结石、输尿管结石、膀胱结石、尿道结石。若结石在肾脏、输尿管,这叫做“上尿路结石”,可引起肾绞痛、隐痛、钝痛以及腰部的疼痛;若结石在膀胱、尿道,这属于“下尿路结石”,可引发血尿、尿频、尿急、尿痛,或排尿不顺畅,若石头正好堵塞尿道,还可造成排尿困难。 刘久敏告诉记者,结石的位置、大小、症状、梗阻程度决定治疗方法。无积水、无堵塞、无症状的小结石(例如0.2×0.3厘米)叫做“无意义结石”,患者不一定要“取石”,可定期体检,观察有无变化,一般每半年或一年复查一次。 “但也有例外,因为结石会越长越大,并且会移动,没症状的会变成有症状的。例如,小结石在‘宽敞’的膀胱没任何症状,滚落到‘狭窄’的尿道则引发疼痛、血尿,甚至排尿困难。各地飞的生意人、飞行人员、海员等出现症状时多无法及时获得医疗救治,可预先处理掉这些细小结石。”他说。

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